New Orleans Jazz, Chicago Jazz, Dixieland
The earliest, New Orleans jazz is an inheritance of the tradition of marching brass bands with ensembles consisting of an impressive rhythm section (2-3 drummers, percussion, double bass), various winds (trombone, trumpet, clarinet, cornet), and guitar-violin-banjo , if we get lucky. Later, almost all known jazz performers left New Orleans for Chicago, where, having honed their skills, they became the founders of Chicago jazz – the earliest jazz. Dixieland is an imitation of white-skinned groups to its black fellow founders of the genre. Speaking about the outstanding jazz performers of the time, one cannot fail to say about whole jazz orchestras. Charles “Buddy” Bolden and his “Ragtime Band.” They are considered almost the first jazz orchestra of the New Orleans style. Records with their game has not survived, but experts are confident that the repertoire consisted of various classical compositions of ragtime, blues, as well as a variety of marches, waltzes and plays with a jazz character of performance. The following performers of New Orleans jazz are not tied to a specific orchestra. At different times, they played in different ensembles, converging and diverging with other famous musicians. Freddie Keppard is on the list of the most influential jazz musicians of the time after Buddy Bolden. In New Orleans, he played in the Olimpia Band, in Los Angeles he created the Original Creole Orchestra, in Chicago (at the sunset of Dixieland’s popularity) he also didn’t get bored and performed with famous musicians of his time. Joseph “King” Oliver is also a cornet player and a great fellow. In New Orleans, he managed to play with five orchestras, and then, after the USA entered the First World War in 1917 and all New Orleans entertainment places were closed, they went north with Chicago to many other musicians. Sydney Beshe is a clarinet and a saxophonist. He started playing in ensembles very early and even managed to get into Ragtime for Buddy Bolden. He was noted in the Chicago jazz orchestras and in later swing orchestras, and even rode around Europe a lot, including in the USSR (1926). Original Dixieland Jass Band – and this is Dixieland, this is white guys, following in the footsteps of black Orleans groups. They are known to have released the world’s first gramophone record with a recording of a jazz composition. In general, they have done a lot to popularize the genre. They say that it was from these guys that the “Jazz Age” began. Many of their things in the future become famous jazz standards. Stride Stride originated in New York, in areas of Manhattan during World War I, completely separate from New Orleans jazz. This is a piano style that developed from ragtime by complicating the rhythm, as well as enhancing the virtuosity of the performers. James Johnson is “the father of the stride.” He is considered an important figure in the transition from ragtime to the jazz stride. On the piano, he learned to play mostly himself, he worked in various New York clubs. He composed a bunch of popular tunes in the 20s. Fats Waller is another stride pianist, who became almost more famous as a composer than as a performer. Many of his compositions were later processed and performed by other famous musicians. By the way, he also played the organ. Art Tatum – one of the most famous figures in the stride. He was a remarkable virtuoso, distinguished by an unusual for the genre technique of the game (he loved scales and arpeggios, one of the first to flirt with musical harmonies and tonalities). Even in times of swing and big bands he paid attention to himself (solo artist). He influenced many other jazz musicians, who often noted his extraordinary skill.